New Immigrant Speech and Language Testing

We are continually impressed with the level of expertise and dedication that is evident in the emails we receive.  I wanted to share this question and answer that came through about where to begin with new immigrant speech and language testing.

“It is instructive, makes me feel like I am not alone, and I know change is possible.”

Good evening,

New immigrant Speech and Language Testing I was hoping to get some advice on how to proceed with a request for consultation we received at our Preschool Assessment Team.

The parent of a 4year 11month old girl visited our office with concerns regarding her daughter’s communication skills. The girl has been in the United States for 15 days. Previously, she was living in Mexico with her grandparents. Mother reported that the girl has been nonverbal all her life and communication is limited to pointing/gestures and some vowel sound production. Grandparents speak Mixteco, and the mother speaks Mixteco and Spanish.

The girl’s dominant language is unknown. Hearing acuity is questionable. A hearing screening was attempted in our office but the girl was unable to follow simple 1- step instructions in Spanish.

I would greatly appreciate any guidance you could recommend on how to proceed with this case.

Thank you,

Hi Ana
I think that your use of the word consultation” versus “evaluation” is good here. There is a lot you can do to gather information to identify if this may head in the direction of a communication problem. There are several layers over this that will not allow a clear picture of communicative abilities:

  • High mobility
  • Recent immigration
  • 2 home languages that are not English

On the other hand, her communication is extremely limited.

I would suggest you do a parent interview asking very direct questions about what she says or not. You want to get a “conceptual” language sample to get a feeling on her vocabulary. Conceptual, vs. Comparative means that if she has the word DOG in Spanish and MIXTECO that it counts as 1 concept.

new immigrant speech and language testing The DAY-C is great for good questions. Also we have some parent intake forms on our Evaluation Resources Page:

As far as communication goes. Download the Apples to Apples Milestones from the same page. These are researched facts that are true of most languages. For example, mostly all 1-year olds have 50 words, mostly all 2-year olds make 2-word utterances. All children should be fully intelligible to their close family members by age 3. Her situation included.

Hope that gets you moving in the right direction.



Thank you so much for all the valuable suggestions. Since parents have limited social services/resources to address the hearing concerns, how would you address this issue? Would you proceed with the other parts of the assessment?

Thank you in advance,

But you have to establish hearing during testing. There is a good chance that she does have hearing issues based on how she is speaking.

Ask parents about history and number of ear infections. Also, ask about the latest ear infection.

Do a test during testing asking her to look. Clap behind her head and see if she turns.

You also need to do informal vision testing. Can she grab tiny objects with a pincer grip? Can she identify people in a photo on a phone? This will tell you that she can see the testing prompts which can be as small as 1×1 inch.  You can also ask her to match small pictures at a distance.  Show her a picture and give her four to choose from to see if she can select the match.

Then you need to write that up as part of your evaluation. Something like:

Current vision and hearing status is not available.  CHILD’s vision and hearing were informally evaluated by…  Vision and Hearing were deemed adequate for testing purposes. It is suggested that vision and hearing should be tested at the first available opportunity (also add this last sentence to the report summary.).

Too many kids go too long without this getting established.  So, own it until the next professional (teacher, nurse, counselor) picks it up and keeps checking. I even met a family at a hospital once to translate for them when they were offered a free test.

Best Regards,

Thank you for your suggestions on this case.
Have a great day.


As you can see in this example, there are many considerations for this child and her family–dual language exposure at home, recent change in home setting, primarily a non-verbal communicator as an almost-5-year-old, undetermined hearing and vision.   Our field is complicated, and each person’s communication outcomes are influenced by many factors.  In this case, Ana thoughtfully walked through the various areas of a potential assessment.  Her efforts will surely provide meaningful communication outcomes for this child.

Written by: Scott Prath

2 Comments on “New Immigrant Speech and Language Testing”

  1. October 14, 2018 at 9:15 am #

    You mentioned using the DAYC for good questions…would you use its scoring when testing 2-3 year old bilingual student?

    • October 15, 2018 at 7:37 am #

      Yes, and No. Good Question
      Putting together these standardized tests require soooo much work and lots of really smart and dedicated people. I have been involved in many of the field testing projects for some of the bigger evals that we use plus we standardized two tests of our own. So my hat goes off to anyone working in this direction. I think our field is too quick to criticize the tests we use. On the other hand, if the test wasn’t normed on the population that we are testing then the numbers are not applicable. What to do?

      I use the standardized tests because they typically are indeed great. But with 3 caveats. 1) I write a paragraph that says: This test was not normed on this population – therefore the items were administered for data collection purposes and each item analysed taking into consideration the child’s home language and culture. 2) Then I just do simple math and explain the number of questions that a child got right per age group. CHILD correctly completed 4/5 tasks expected of a child age 3.0-3.5. The one he missed was… CHILD completed 2/5 tasks expected of a child age 3.5-4.0. He was able to… He was not able to… 3) then I look at the linguistics significance of the questions related to the home language. For example, CHILD uses two word utterances: In Spanish I would count Damelo (Give it to me) which is in essence a single word but a longer syntactic idea. Use the tests because they are good tools. But “explain” your results because we can’t use the scores. This is more difficult for clinic SLPs who require a score to get insurance to get on board – I am afraid. We do this same thing in our clinic reports thought too.

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